If you ever had an ear on the aero bands, you are already familiar with ICAO Selcalls. With this 2 x 2 tone signal lasting for about 2,2 seconds, a Ground Station alerts a specific airplane to open up for communications. The short video on top of this page shows a typical initial contact, where Ground an Air are testing the Selcal.
This paper (click this hyperlink) describes on three pages with nine illustrations, one video and one audio the procedure and gives some background information. These may improve correct decoding of the somewhat delicate signals, as it will show how to look up the Selcal and follow the flight. BTW: It is planned to extend the pool of 16 tones to 32 tones by September 1st, 2016.
P.S. Remember to save the PDF and open it with a recent version of Acrobat Reader. Otherwise the multimedia (video, audio) will not work!
The world is full of software-defined radio (SDR), but HackRF One has a rather unique position – thanks to its vast maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz. With an up-converter, this combination covers more than 70 percent of the whole HF range from 3 to 30 MHz. Even better: with proper software you can record and play this enormous band!
However, this stunning bandwidth is achieved by a moderate resolution of 8 bit, resulting in a dynamic range of just nearly 50 dB. Or the half of SDRs like Elad’s FDM-S2.
Anyway. I wanted to know in practice what you can actually do with such a set at a budget price plus mostly free software. The results surprised even me: Properly used, this combination convinced as a quite decent performer on HF! The world map above shows some of the stations received with the set (see insert bottom left) to test its performance.
I laid down my experiences and recommendations for best reception in a paper of 17 multi-media pages full of examples – including 55 screenshots, 21 audio clips and one video. The PDF shows how to optimize reception of broadcast, utility and amateur radio stations. It covers many examples on how to analyze recordings, to decode data transmission with free software plus live decoding of 14 channels in parallel. It also gives some examples of combining HF reception with the internet, e.g. regarding the reception of signals from airplanes (ARINC, HFDL) and vessels (GMDSS).
My experiences really left me enthusiastic about this set.
You may share this enthusiasm and download the PDF of 43 MB here. Save it on your hard disk or USB stick, and open it with a most recent Adobe Reader. Otherwise, the multimedia content will not work.
[Einen deutschsprachigen Test habe ich jeweils als Titelgeschichte in der April- Ausgabe 2017 der Fachzeitschrift Radio-Kurier – weltweit hören und in der Mai-Ausgabe der Fachzeitschrift Funktelegramm veröffentlicht.]
The video shows how to combine some software to get and visualize more information from your HFDL monitoring.
HFDL is a data mode, intensively used between air and ground. You can receive these data and decode it with e.g. PC-HFDL software. These data maybe automatically streamed to software PC-HFDL-Display. It takes up to six sources and displays all information neatly in a spread-sheet style.
If you click on the Flight Number in the resulting spread-sheet, website flightradar24 opens up and shows the complete route of this flight, together with many other data.
Note, that not each and every Flight Number is listed on the flightradar24 page. This page relies mainly on position reports on the ADS-B network, transmitted on 1,090 GHz with a range of rarely more than 400 km. Out of this range, HFDL steps in. ADS-B plus HFDL is a charming combination as is the two software and the web service presented in the above video. Click HD button at bottom right there (“Enable HD Quality”) to get the best quality.
In recent posts, I already wrote about my experiences with Simon Brown’s software SDR Console V3.0. It matches most SDRs, delivers now up to 24 virtual receivers and is capable to run multi instances, i.e. you may run several SDRs on one PC in parallel.
That’s exactly what I did when I connected three SDRs FDM-S2 to a PC, running 35 different ARINC-635 channels in parallel resulting in 68.000 decoded messages. It worked brillantly.
And there is much more, e.g. recording and playing 24 audio channels from broadcasters throughout 20 MHz (the whole FM band!) with hardware RFHack One.
This paper provides a hands-on and step-by-step guide for some vital monitoring tasks like:
- using up to three receivers on one antenna and one PC
- working with multi instances of GUIs
- working with multi instances of software decoders like PC-HFDL and MultiPSK
- carefully planning a monitoring session
- analyzing the decoded results and apply some basic statistics on 68.000+ messages
- record and play 24 channels incl. RDS data within a bandwidth of 20 MHz on the FM broadcast band plus on HF with RFHack One (see screenshot on top of this page, “Matrix” mode)
- … and much more
The original software for Elad receivers provides a very useful feature, resembling the old radio scale: it inserts some station data from a list on their proper place in the spectrum – see screenshots above (utility) and below (broadcast).
You may invoke several lists like EiBi and your own memories. These list just must comply to the data standard, Elad had set. You may also set up your own list. If you sepcify a transmission time other than 0000-2400, only the stations active at this time will pop up.
With Bernd Friedewald’s (DK9FI) International Listening Guide there is such as matching list available providing 31.000+ entries of brodcast as well as of utility stations. Bernd is a long-time professional in the field of broadcast monitoring and international consulting in this field. You may also edit this list.
(Disclaimer: I have no commercial relationship with ILG, and bought the data like everyone.)
HF spectrum is precious. Each user has to obey specific rule – of ITU and his own country. For best communications, there have been assigned exclusive band for different user groups. The amateur radio bands for hams are among them.
“Intruder Watch” is to look out for stations which do have no legitimation to transmit on the frequencies they use. These signals can originate from broadcasters, bad transmitters with their fundamental on a legitimate frequency, broadcast, military (OTHR RADAR!), diplomatic …
Amateur radio with it’s relatively small transmitters and antennas is especially prone to be disturbed by intruders. SDRs, software and a specific workflow (see illustration on top of this page) offer an as easy as complete monitoring of such bands on a 24/7 base at low costs.
This paper shows how that can be done: monitoring and analyzing on a professional level.
Professionelles Monitoring spürt zuverlässig sämtliche Bandeindringlinge in Frequenzbereichen auf, wo diese nicht hingehören. Das ist, sogar auf 24/7-Basis, auch mit Amateurmitteln möglich. Das Werkzeug sind ein SDR, Software und ein spezifischer Arbeitsprozess.
Hier kannst Du das Paper auch auf Deutsch lesen, wie alles funktioniert – Schritt für Schritt.
The Perseus SDR comes with a software, where you may define up to eight markers. Each of them measures the level of the signal at distances of 100 ms to 5 seconds and writes it into a CSV file. This is the base for further analyzing these data, i.e. propagation. See such an analysis of the fade-out of CHU on 3.330 kHz on top of this page.
With an (active) antenna delivering a constant antenna factor over specific range – as all professional antennas do, e.g. RF-Systems’s DX-1 – you may also switch to logging the field strength of the signal in dBµV, rather than the input level in dBm.
The first paper presents a general introduction into this concept. It has been translated into English by Guy Atkins.
The second paper, in German, goes more into the depth of analyzing the data. But it’s 13 illustrations will make it under stable also to readers who don’t understand German.
With it’s TitanSDR, Italy-based company Enablia has a new approach in SDRs: This receiver delivers up to 40 demodulated channels in different HF bands.
Applications are numerous, e.g. checking GMDSS channels in different maritime bands (see above), monitoring many ALE channels at once, control broadcasters with all their parallel frequencies etc.
This paper delivers on 26 pages and with 44 illustrations a detailed hands-on explanation of this new approach. It is enriched with some audio clips. It shows real-world example of receiving brodcast, amateur radio and utility stations. And it assists you in setting up a couple of decoders at once to monitor many channels in parallel.
Caveat: Embedded multimedia content will only work with the most recent version of Adobe`s Acrobat Reader. And you have to save the PDF on your device (hard disk/stick), to make use of these multi-media.
HOKA’s Code3-32P is a truly professional decoder in a price class which will fit into most hobby budgets. Together with Roland Proesch’s Frequency Manager it makes an even stronger companion (with your Perseus SDR) in decoding and analyzing many digimodes.
This paper is an introduction into this decoder. It’s written in German, but 17 illustrations plus Google’s Translator will help you.
Nach wie vor ist der Code3-32P von HOKA ein starker Decoder und ein zuverlässiges Analysewerkzeug für Digimodes zu einem verhältnismäßig kleinen Preis. Zusammen mit dem Frequency Manager von Roland Proesch bildet er ein nochmals stärkeres Gespann (dann gemeinsam mit dem Perseus SDR).
Dieses deutschsprachige PDF bietet auf 18 Seiten eine reich illustrierte Einführung in den Code3-32P – mit Beispielen aus der wirklichen Welt, jenseits des Deutschen Wetterdienstes …
ELAD’s FDM-S2 provides the output of three different channels within a given HF bandwidth of up to nearly 5 MHz. Hence, you may decode these channels in parallel. ARINC’s reporting system of ground and airborne stations is an excellent candidate to show this feature.
This paper is a step-by-step introduction in how to set up the receiver, the virtual audio cables (VAC), decoder, documenting software and Google Earth to show the results on the globe.
You may then easily configure hard&soft for other applications, e.g. the monitoring of GMDSS channels with communications from ship and shore.