Category Archives: Modes

WSPR & Flight MH370; Richard Godfrey & DARC e.V.: Zwei erledigte Fälle

Seit Wochen führt Richard Godfrey, ein Renter aus dem Hessischen, die Fach- und Publikumspresse mit folgender These an der Nase herum: Mit historischen Logdaten von WSPR, einem Amateurfunk-Mode geringer Leistung, ließe sich der Todesflug MH370 verfolgen.

Ich habe diese These lange ignoriert, weil deren Unwissenschaftlichkeit für mich auf der flachen Hand lag. Als sie allerdings immer mehr Publizität gewann, sah ich das technisch-wissenschaftliche Image des Amateurfunks ins Lächerliche gezogen und schaltete mich mit eigenen Untersuchungen zu diesem Thema ein. In diesem und in diesem Beitrag versuchte ich auf technisch-wissenschaftlicher Basis und mit einer Unmenge von Daten die Scharlatanerien von Godfrey zu widerlegen.

Da war ich nicht der erste und schon gar nicht der einzige. Siehe unter anderem hier.

Zugleich schickte ich dem DARC e.V. eine kurze Information über meine Untersuchungen und deren Ergebnis. Erst 2019 hatte dieser “Bundesverband für den Amateurfunkdienst” Nobelpreisträger (Physik, 1993) Prof. Joe Taylor, K1JT, als Entwickler von WSPR (2008) endlich seinen “Horkheimer-Preis” zuerkannt, wofür ich mich schon Jahre zuvor erfolglos eingesetzt hatte – der Verein hat es offenbar immer noch nicht so mit moderner Technik. Mit meiner Information wollte ich erreichen, dass Godfrey nicht weiter den Amateurfunk und auch die Arbeit eines Nobelpreisträger lächerlich macht:

WSPR und MH370: Eine kritische Würdigung
Immer wieder gibt es in der Fach- und Publikumspresse Nachrichten darüber, dass Logdaten des WSPR-Datennetzes bei der Lokalisierung von Flugzeugen helfen können. Insbesondere geht es darum, den tatsächhlichen Absturzort des Fluges MH370 festzustellen. Diese Bemühungen laufen im Wesentlichen darauf hinaus, in den archivierten WSPR-Logdaten “ungewöhnliche” Pegelsprünge und Frequenzänderungen (“Drift”) festzustellen und diese Reflexionen bestimmter Flugzeuge zuzuschreiben (“Aircraft Scatter”). In einem Blogeintrag unterzieht Nils Schiffhauer, DK8OK, diese Theorie erstmals einer kritischen Würdigung. Diese fußt einerseits auf der jahrelangen Beobachtung von Aircraft Scatter auf Kurzwelle sowie einer Untersuchung von gut 30 Dopplerspuren. Die Ergebnisse dieser aufwendigen Analyse von über 10.000 Daten allein in einem Beispiel lesen sich ernüchternd: Die Auswirkungen von Aircraft Scatter auf das Gesamtsignal bewegen sich fast immer deutlich unter 0,3 dB. Eine Korrelation zwischen Pegelveränderungen des Gesamtsignals und Flugzeug-Scatter nachzuweisen, erscheint anhand des WSPR-Datenmaterials kaum möglich. Die Gründe sind vielfältig, liegen aber vor allem in der Kurzwellenausbreitung, bei der Pegeländerungen von 30 dB innerhalb weniger Sekunden eher die Regel als die Ausnahme darstellen. Da bei den bisherigen Untersuchungen am WSPR-Datenmaterial jedoch der örtliche und zeitliche Zustand der Ionosphäre nicht bekannt ist – er wird in professionellen OTH-Radar-System parallel erfasst und aus dem Empfangssignal herausgerechnet -, lassen sich Pegelsprünge allein aus dem Summensignal kaum eindeutig zuordnen. Dieser Befund wird im Blog durch weitere Argumente gestützt.

Wenngleich ich nichts vom DARC hörte, so landete diese Information jedoch auf mir unbekanntem Wege bei Richard Godfrey. Der reagierte in seinem Blog wie folgt:

Sie sind in diesem Blog nicht willkommen! Sie wurden 1992 aus dem Deutschen Amateur-Radio-Club (DARC) ausgeschlossen. Trotz 3 Einsprüchen auf regionaler und nationaler Ebene sowie vor Gericht sind Sie auch 29 Jahre später noch von der Mitgliedschaft ausgeschlossen. Dafür gibt es sehr gute Gründe. […]
Ich habe mich bei Christian Entsfellner DL3MBG, dem derzeitigen Vorsitzenden des DARC, über Ihre Forderungen beschwert, gegen meine Arbeit und die von Dr. Robert Westphal (DJ4FF) offiziell auf der DARC-Website zu MH370 und WSPRnet zu protestieren.
Ihr Papier ist schlichtweg falsch und Ihre Argumente sind unangebracht.
Ich schlage vor, Sie gehen woanders hin, denn ich bin sicher, dass es andere MH370-Websites gibt, die Leute wie Sie willkommen heißen. Und Tschüss!

Also: keine inhaltliche Diskussion, sondern eine denunziatorische Mail an “Christian Entsfellner, DL3MBG, den derzeitigen Vorsitzenden des DARC”. Da Entsfellner das Produkmanagement eines Unternehmens verantwortet, das mit HF-Technik handelt, dachte ich, er werde beide Ansichten fachlich prüfen und natürlich zur Erkenntnis gelangen, dass Godfreys Thesen technisch-wissenschaftlich nicht überzeugend sind. Ob jemand überhaupt Mails mit denuziatorischem Inhalt ernst nimmt, ist freilich eine Charakterfrage – wie jene, solche Mails zu schreiben.

Allerdings lief alles so, wie Godfrey es sich gedacht haben mag: von Stil und Inhalt her hatte er genau ins Schwarze getroffen! Denn daraufhin veröffentlichte der DARC eine Presseinformation, in der er die Godfrey’schen Schwurbeleien in den Himmel hob. Verantwortlich dafür: das “Presseteam“* des “Bundesverbandes”, dem man dafür den “Aluhut mit Raute” verleihen sollte.

Warum sich die Vereinsfunker nicht kundig machten, wenn sie schon nicht selbst die Sachkenntnis gehabt haben sollten, ist mir ebenso ein Rätsel wie die Frage, warum sie zwar Godfrey in die Sache einbanden, nicht jedoch K1JT, wozu eine E-Mail an den Preisträger ihres Vereins gereicht hätte!

[Das heißt: So groß ist das Rätsel wiederum auch nicht. Und hätte ich eine Versuchsanordnung mit unfehlbar diesem Ausgang designen müssen – exakt diese wär ‘s gewesen!
Du glaubst es nicht? Hier der Beweis: Am 8.12.21 schrieb ich in Godfreys Blog dazu:
“Ganz ohne Zweifel wird Ihr ‘Protest’ (nicht: irgendwelche Argumente) bei DARC-Präsident Christian Entsfellner, DL3MBG, auf fruchtbaren Boden fallen. Er wird sich Ihre Meinung zu eigen machen. Denn, so vermute ich, er wird sich nicht von den technisch-wissenschaftlichen Argumente leiten lassen. Sie scheinen die gleiche Voreingenommenheit zu teilen.”
Und: Horch, Glöckchen! Am 9.12.21 gab der DARCs eine diesbezügliche ‘Presseinformation’ raus.
Siehste, ist doch gar nicht so schwierig, den DARC zu einer Pawlow’schen Reaktion zu bewegen!]

Auch wenn es zwecklos ist, Scharlatanerien mit sachlichen Argumenten zu begegnen, hatte daraufhin der US-amerikanische Physiker Dr. Victor Ianello sich bei K1JT zu dessen Meinung zum Thema “WSPR und MH370” erkundigt. Die Antwort des Nobelpreisträgers fiel zum wiederholten Male eindeutig aus:

“Wie ich bereits mehrfach geschrieben habe, ist es verrückt zu glauben, dass historische WSPR-Daten dazu verwendet werden könnten, den Kurs des verunglückten Fluges MH370 zu verfolgen. Oder, was das betrifft, jeden anderen Flugzeugflug… Ich verschwende meine Zeit nicht damit, mit Pseudowissenschaftlern zu streiten, die nicht verstehen, was sie tun.”

Prof. Joe Taylor, K1JT

Verrückt” und “Pseudowissenschaftler, die nicht verstehen, was sie tun” – das ist deutlich genug. Aber auch die Konsequenz, sich mit solchen Leuten erst gar nicht zu beschäftigen. Sollen sie weiterhin unter ihresgleichen auf Dummenfang gehen.

Der DARC, mit unten zitiertem Anschreiben davon in Kenntnis gesetzt mit der Bitte, diesen dem technisch-wissenschaftlichen Image des Amateurfunks schädlichen Scharlatanerien keinen Raum zu geben, reagierte bislang nicht. Das Anschreiben:

Guten Tag – nachdem ja einiges Wunschdenken zum Thema “WSPR und Flug MH370” die Publikums- wie Fachmedien beherrschte und auch der DARC mit einer Pressemeldung Partei für diese Scharlatanerien ergriff, hat nun Nobelpreisträger Prof. Taylor selbst diesem “verrückten Glauben” eine deutliche Absage erteilt.
Ich meine, dass ein weiteres Festhalten an diesem Wunschdenken das technisch-wissenschaftliche Image des Amateurfunks untergräbt. Irren und erst recht Wunschdenken ist menschlich. Aber man sollte sich, wenn schon nicht durch technisch-wissenschaftliche Argumente, so doch durch das Machtwort eines Horkheimer- und Nobelpreisträgers (was immer davon die härtere Münze im DARC sein mag) überzeugen lassen.
Vielleicht ist ja im nächste Deutschland-Rundspruch Platz für folgende Meldung, deren Inhalt auch gerne für eine erneute Pressemitteilung des DARC zu diesem Thema genutzt werden mag.

Godfrey aber kann sich gratulieren: er wusste genau die richtigen Fäden zu ziehen, um dem DARC-Vorsitzenden, dessen Verein sich trotz vielfacher Aufforderung nicht gegen Denunziation als Mittel der Diskussion im Amateurfunk ausgesprochen hat, seine schrägen Thesen schmackhaft zu machen. Christian Entsfellner wiederum hätte diese technisch und unvoreingenommen überprüfen können und müssen, das “Presseteam“* ebenfalls. Wer es nicht kann, ziehe Experten hinzu.

Dass in der technisch-wissenschaftlichen Community der Amateurfunk immer weiter zur Lachnummer verkommt, ist insofern nicht verwunderlich, sondern mit Fleiß selbstgestrickt.

Zwei nur halbwegs ernstgemeinte Prognosen, nun: zum einen wird Richard Godfrey Ehrenmitglied des DARC e.V. (mit vollem Recht, denn er hat mit den dafür goldrichtigen Methoden dem Ansehen des Amateurfunks einen schweren Schlag versetzt), zum anderen wird man die Black Box von MH370 an der prognostizierten Stelle finden – was dann aber auch ganz & gar nichts mit WSPR zu tun haben wird. Und die “Pseudowissenschaftler” werden jubelnd ihre Aluhüte in die Luft werfen.

* Wenn auch technisch-wissenschaftliche Themen nicht so ganz die Kragenweite des “Presseteams” sein mögen, so leistet es doch geradezu Herausragendes bei der “Anpassung von Vorstandshemden”:
In einem kürzlichen “Mitgliedertreff” äußerte sich ein Vorstandsmitglied des DARC ganz begeistert darüber, wie er “vor Steffi strammstehen durfte” (gemeint ist Dipl.-Soz. Stephanie “Steffi” Heine, DO7PR, stellv. Geschäftsführerin des DARC e.V. und offenbar leitende Presseverantwortliche), um sich ein “Vorstandshemd” anpassen zu lassen. Der DARC-Vorständler war darob ganz hin und weg: “Top und schick … mit Stickereien!” Worauf besagte “Steffi” flötete: “Das machen wir doch gerne!”
Man glaubt es unbesehen. Und dass es dafür dann beim “Bundesverband” mit technisch-wissenschaftlichen Themen gelegentlich ein wenig hakt, wollen wir gerne nachsehen: Das “Vorstandshemd” sitzt halt näher als der Rock.

In solchen Händen sind die technisch-wissenschaftlichen und die ethisch-charakterlichen Grundlagen des Amateurfunks ebenso vorzüglich aufgehoben, wie genau diese Eigenschaften für viel Geld in alle Welt geblasen werden!

Wer das nicht noch weiter mit seinem Geld unterstützen möchte, sondern wer für ein seriöses technisch-wissenschaftliches Hobby eintritt, das vom Ham Spirit getragen wird, sollte, falls er wirklich noch Mitglied im DARC ist, aus diesem austreten. Noch heute.

GMDSS: Some new exciting Features

In my last blog, I wrote about my experiences with BCS-GMDSS multi-channel decoder. Chris, the software author, had added some smart features in the meantime. I would like to briefly introduce some of them in loose order.

Newly introduced is a window showing “Frequency and Time Statistics”. This somewhat sober, albeit highly informative table can be spiced up a bit yourself – see the following three screenshots (double-clicking onto them shows them in full resolution):

Thes statistics table neatly lists all channels with their messages – either all (here) or Coastal Stations only. A smart feature is that it presents the data as a heatmap.

The heatmap shows clearly that 8MHz is the most productive channel. It shows also how propagation works – see fade-in and fade-out of those channels on 12MHz and 16MHz. From a DXer’s point of view, however, 2187.5kHz can be considered some of the most interesting channel. Another new window gives an overlook about all those Coastal stations received, and how often, on what channel, and when for the first/last time.

This table lists all received Coastal station with some essential data. I marked some interesting ones, from a DXer’s point of view, which were exclusively received on 2187.5kHz

Furthermore, Chris introduced a (basic) map where you can see the locations of those Coastal stations you have received – if you don’t know exactly where to locate e.g., Taman Radio or Marzara del Vallo Radio … Even better, as the map is living: double-click to a location, and a window with your logs of this Coastal is popping up!

A basic map, which can be zoomed in/out, locates all the received Coastals. Double-clicking on a location opens a window with your log of this one – here Arkhangelsk Radio.

The log is organized as a database. This opens the chance for many applications in logging, searching and presenting your logs. Many of those option are already built-in, like searching all stations within a specific time frame or matching one or more specific fields, let it be MMSI, Ship Owner or country. One special format supports that used by highly recommended dsc-list@groups.io:

Here, BCS-GMDSS software had converted some Coastal’s logs into the DSC List format (Utilities -> Export Database Search Results as DSC List). I just copied and uploaded it. Smart!

The recent version of BCS-GMDSS also supports a search option for MMSI: just double-click the wanted MMSI to open a specific Google search. In nearly all cases I tried, the first result lead straight to much more information on a handful of websites, providing e.g., location, map with position and often a photo of the vessel:

Just double-click a MMSI, and a Google search starts. Clicking onto the first result revealed a map with the postion of the “Imperious” north of Banda Aceh/Indonesia, a photo plus some additional data. So we have received this Oil Products Tanker on her way from Malaysia to Fujairah/UAE.

Finally, Chris was kind enough to respond to the request of a single, elderly gentleman and provide for the export of all data in a form that separates all possible data fields by CSVs – analogous to the official ITU publications, among others. This offers many more and very specific possibilities for search and (statistical) evaluation. The nice elderly gentleman has already tried this (“Great!”) with Access:

Here, the CSV data from nearly 30’000 messages have been imported to Access database and sorted by ship’s name.

After so much data then for writing reception reports with some nice results:

MRCC Klaipeda answered my reception report within minutes with this stunning e-QSL card …
… as also RCC Australia and …
… Valparaiso Playa Ancha Radio did. Thanks to all of them!

Ahoy! Decoding eight GMDSS Channels in a Convoy

Decoding all GMDSS channels at once: Black Cat System’s groundbreaking GMDSS Decoder.

Chris Smolinski, W3HFU, did it again: after his multi-channel attack to ALE, he now offers this highly innovative concept also for GMDSS – Black Cat GMDSS. In addition to an extraordinary sensitive decoder, it also includes smart processing of the data – from looking up vessel’s complete data from ITU’s Ship Station List (internet connection needed) to saving all data to a fully-fledged database. Welcome aboard! Now let’s set sail!

3000+ Messages a Day – received on HF

The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System is a system of different maritime communications tools on frequencies ranging from as low as 424kHz [NAVTEX] over HF and VHF up to satellite channels in the GHz region. This blog entry focus on Black Cat GMDSS decoder, hence on HF. There, the six main channels range from 2MHz to 16MHz. Reception of both, Coastal Stations and vessels, is from around the world. In this case from Vestmannaeyjar Radio in Iceland to Cape Town Radio in South Africa, and from Valparaiso Playo Ancha Radio in Chile to Taupo Maritime Radio in New Zealand. You may hear vessels of each and every kind, from small ones for pleasure to the biggest oil tankers, and all over the world. Monitoring on all six main channels in parallel, often raises 3000+ messages a day!

Robust FSK mode

Transmission is done in 2-FSK with 170Hz shift and at speed of 100Bd. Waveform is ‘kind of SITOR-B, repeating each character twice with a 400ms spread to enhance proper decoding under adverse propagation (Rec. ITU-R M.493-11). To establish a call, each station has been assigned to an unique MMSI, or Maritime Mobile Security Identity number consisting of now nine digits, in future 10 digits. MMSIs starting with 00 denote a Coastal Station, e.g., 004123100 for Guangzhou Radio/China. There is a set of 127 symbols, with the first numbers 00 to 99 representing numbers, and each of the remaining number specific situations like “110” denoting “Man over board”. The software has to look up those source-coded messages in a codebook to print a readable message, giving some sense.

Smart coding

One message is about 6.4 seconds long. it starts with a short dot-pattern/phasing sequence for automatic tuning, followed by the content. In this live example, JRCC Australia (MMSI 003669991) is calling Merchant Oil tanker Signal Maya (MMSI 248410000) on 12577kHz at 15:59:43 UTC on November 21, 2021.
There are transmitted 23 groups (“Symbols”) in GMDSS :

  • 120 120 021 007 061 000 000 108 000 050 030 000 010 118 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 122 111

and decoded as follows:

  • 120 120 -> Format
  • 021 007 061 000 000 -> Address – MMSI of called station
  • 108 -> Category
  • 000 050 030 000 010 -> Self MMSI – MMSI of calling station
  • 118 126 -> first and second [none in this case, “idling”] telecommand message
  • 126 126 126 -> frequency message [none in this case, “idling”]
  • 126 126 122 -> end of message
  • 111 -> error-check character [ECC]
  • After a look-up in the codebook this turns into:
  • Format: Individual call
  • Address [to]: 210761000
  • Category: Safety
  • Self MMSI [from]: 005030001
  • First telecommand: Test

… even smarter decoding!

Still not much enlightment. But BCS-GMDSS is at your service. It looks up all the cryptic numbers at different sources, even tapping official ITU webpage to enrich the vessel’s MMSI with its stunning mutltitude of information. Wrapping it up, decoding and looking-up in an internal codebook (Coastal Station) as well as in ITU sources (vessels), the above mentioned 23 symbols come out in full glory reading:

[2021-11-21 14:59:43] 12577
Symbols: 120 120 021 007 061 000 000 108 000 050 030 000 010 118 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 122 111
Self MMSI: 005030001 – Australia – JRCC AUSTRALIA 26 20′ 48″ S 120 33′ 52″ E 13669 km, 92 deg
Address: 210761000 – Cyprus
Ship: SALT LAKE CITY | Callsign: C4DS2 | MMSI: 210761000 | Cyprus (Republic of) (CYP) | Vessel ID: 9314129 | EPIRB: BE1 | 06/12/2017
Class: Merchant | Bulk carrier | | 89076 tons | 26 persons | INMARSAT C MINI M INMARSAT M VHF DSC | 24 hr service
Owner: NOBEL NAVIGATION CO LTD POB 50132 LIMASSOL CYPRUS
Misc: Former Name: THALASSINI NIKI | | EPIRB ID: 210761000 | | Telephone Bands: STUV | AAIC: GR14 | | CO | |
Format: Individual call Category: Safety First telecommand: Test

As you have seen, I already mixed some theory with some practice – as you know me.

Now for some features of the software, plus some hints to make the most out of it.

Some basics, you must be tuned to

BCS-GMDSS offers up to 8 channels in parallel which by default are set to the main six GMDSS channels plus two with only rarely traffic observed, also on 2MHz. Those channels are fed by a SDR, ideally covering the whole range from 2MHz to 17MHz, alias-free. In this range you have to place the up to eight channels, RX1 … RX8, and have their output set to VAC1 … VAC8. The inputs of the decoder have to match those VAC numbers – see screenshot.

Here, six GMDSS channels have been set with SDRC software, controlling a Winradio Sigma SDR at 20MHz bandwidth.

Take some care to think about mode, tuned frequency and audio frequencies, and bandwidth. Mode can be USB, CW-U or FSK, whatever your SDR’s software offers. It is, however, mandatory that the center frequency of the audio output must match the centre frequency of the input of the decoder! Otherwise there will be no decoding.

I am using free SDRC software by Simon Brown, G4ELI, easily providing all eight channels via VAC software. I am using CW-U and a bandwidth of 400Hz, giving some room for stations which might deviate by some 10Hz from the assigned channel – the decoder automatically compensates for this. With this setup (see screenshots below), the frequency readout shows the assigned channels, plus centre frequencies of decoder and receiver are matching (here 1700Hz, as ITU recommends). The bandwidth offers a good balance of SNR and tolerance for stations with a slight offset. Your mileage may vary in some aspects, e.g., you may prefer SSB-USB mode, or your software has a BFO if you use CW …
You may also use the wrong sideband (LSB instead of USB) with your receiver – but than you just have to tick “Invert” in the decoder’s Setting menu as it then changes Mark and Space frequencies.

Center frequency set to 1700Hz, low to 1500Hz, High to 1900Hz – resulting in a bandwidth of 400Hz. The signal of Finisterre Radio on 8414,5kHz matches these values.
With center frequency of the audio output (1700Hz) and center frequency of the decoder (1700Hz) matching, a signal falls into both passbands – that of the receiver on the right side with spectrum and spectrogram, and that of the decocoder on the left with spectrum, amplitude and also the Setup menu.

Order! How to cruise through this Ocean of Messages

BCS-GMDSS cleverly combines a most powerful decoder with some extras to calm the rogue waves of decoded information. First, you may reduce (or extend) the degree of information you fetch form the ITU page: Edit -> Settings -> MMSI Lookup. It is very interesting to see the maximum of data (“Most Details”), but with everyday’s monitoring just “Basic” or “Detailed” may run the show. This creenshot is showing the differences:

Five different depth of data output: from “Details: None” to “Details: Most Details” – with all the same audio being decoded.

The second step is to distinguish the vessels from the coastal stations by color. I set the latter ones to show up in blue:

Here, messages from Coastal Stations are printed in blue (Edit -> Highlight Coastal Stations, set color).

Next, BCS-GMDSS offers a Coastal Station’s database. It is a real database which, e.g., each column can be sorted. In the screenshot below, I had sorted them according to their total messages received. Then “Yusa Radio” has been double-clicked to inspect the timestamps of reception:

Coastal Station do have an extra porthole offering some interesting statistics. Each column can be sorted, and a double-click reveals timestamps of one station.

The “Loggings Database Search” is like a supertanker, containing all your logs which can be sorted by a double-click, plus being queried for each column, also combining different criteria. This is the most powerful database any GMDSS decoder has on board. See screenshot below for just one example:

The whole log of 12’590 entries had been queried for messages from Coastal Stations on 2187.5kHz on November 21, 2021 for 24 hours. This answer is of course just a small part of the whole reply from the database.

Addendum: Where are they cruising?

The location of most Coastal stations is openly available, and their geographical coordinates are internally looked up by the software – even calculation of the distances to your location (Edit -> Settings -> Latitude:/Longitude:) is done automatically.
But where are the vessels cruising? They only rarely transmit their location in GMDSS on HF. But if they have an AIS, or Automatic Identification System, you have a fair chance to get the actual location. This system comes in two tastes: AIS and LRTI, or Long Range Identification and Tracking. AIS is using VHF. Propagation restricts the range to some ten kilometers. LRTI is using satellite (INMARSAT). There are some webpages where you get at least AIS for free – just to mention VesselFinder, VesselTracker and MarineTraffic. Their business model is to offer subscriptions for one year at a price of about 1’200 US-$ for LRTI (satellite) data, aimed mainly to the professionals. But most of those companies offer (limited) access to their AIS data for free. The two screenshots below show the difference.

Scattered with vessels: VesselFinder’s professional version listen to all seven oceans via satellite, but offers …
… free acces to AIS data (VHF) which is due to propagation and volunteers feeding this net to those coastal regions.

The example above, bulk carrier Salt Lake City, is only availabe on LRIT. So free data are about one week old. Nevertheless, you get at least a clue where the ship had been. And if time plays no role, just look it up exactly this week later …

For free, we get only a weeks’s old satellite information. At least we can can see the bulk carrier had started from Manila on November 14, heading to Abbot Point in Australia where it is expected on November 29. A rough estimate is that she may have been cruising through the Banda Sea at the time of being called by JRCC Australia.

If you have received the following message, you are lucky:

[2021-11-22 17:02:38] 2187.5
Self MMSI: 229375000 – Malta
Ship: CMA CGM FORT DESAIX | 9HA5478 | 229375000 | MLT | MLT | 9400174 | 229375000 | 04/08/2021
Address: 002275300 – France – MRCC CORSEN 48 40′ 60″ N 2 19′ 0″ W 947 km, 252 deg
Format: Individual call Category: Safety First telecommand: Test

This vessel is covered by AIS (VHF) with its up-to-date data available for free at VesselFinder.

FAX from Shanghai: Pacific Pressures

This FAX broadcast was new to me and received on December 16, 2019 at 08:20 UTC on 16557,1 kHz. It was transmitted via Shanghai Coastal Radio, presumably directed into the Pacific, of which it shows the 48h surface pressure.

It was demodulated from a 25 MHz wide HF recording over 24 hours. This recording was made with Winradio’s G65DDCe Sigma SDR, connected to an active vertical MegaDipol MD300DX (2 x 5 m), and decoded with Wavecom’s W-Code. The recording was scheduled with software SDRC V3 by Simon Brown, and directed via USB3.1 to a 20TB hard disk, WD Duo Book. The resulting one file was 8TB, format WAV RF64.

It was also played back from this hard disk, also via USB3.1. Doing so, it is most remarkable that this setup worked smoothly without any glitches which would promptly have been seen at such a time-critical mode like this FAX., 120/576. So, this reception is also a proof that one can work smoothly with such ‘big data’ even on a hard disk – and not only on expensive SSDs. A FAX transmission is that sensitive that you even see a very weak echo (best seen of the big vertical black stripe at the right which echoes from around 115° East). This originates from a mixed short/long path reception. The strong short path’ flight time is 28.7ms, whereas the weak long path needed 104.7ms. As one FAX line covers 500ms, you can easily measure the delay of roughly 80ms, almost exactly matching the difference of long and short path.

The screenshot has been left un-retouched.

Murmansk FAX: 6.328,5 kHz, new Frequency

Murmansk_6328k5_120_576_1kShift_20170609_0450

Tune into 6330,4 kHz LSB, to get the right black/white frequencies, centered at 1.900 Hz. Shift 1.000 Hz, so 1.400 Hz = white, 2.400 Hz = black. 120 RPM/576 IOC, no APT! Received on June 9th, 2017, at 04:50 UTC.

Reports of the death of Murmansk FAX had been slightly exaggerated … After having searched for it in vain in 1Q/17, it now popped up on 6.328,5 kHz from former 6.445,5 kHz with an irregular schedule, namely at 03:30 UTC at one day and 04:50 UTC another day.

Just fair quality of both, conditions and transmitter, made it very difficult  to read the text in the upper part of this weather chart in Cyrillic, with just: Прогноз … 21 час [Prognosis … 21 hour …]. Receiver AirSPy & SpyVerter, decoder Wavecom W-Code.

Also received on June 1st, 2017, but starting at 03:30 UTC – same area, first half of the transmission heavily distorted by an RTTY signal, see below:

Murmansk_6328k5_120_576_1kShift_20170501_0330

Reception on June 1st, 2017, from 03:30 UTC on 6.328,5 kHz.

Iceberg Prognosis has been received on scheduled 8.444,1 kHz at 20:00 UTC on June 8th, 2017; see below:

8444k1_Murmansk_20170608_2000

Murmansk FAX with Iceberg Prognosis  on 8.444,1 kHz at 20:00 UTC on June 8th, 2017. Cyrillic texts not quite readable. Also received on May, 31st, 2017, same frequency, same time.

Not a trace on/near also listed 7908,8 kHz. It seems that otherwise commendable NOAA publication Worldwide Marine Radiofacsimile Broadcast Schedules is outdated regarding this station.

AirSpy: How to listen to DAB+ Broadcast

It’s pure fun to listen to N-Joy, a North-German broadcaster, in DAB+. This digital mode should replace all classical FM broadcast, and has already done this in some countries where others offer both – like Germany.

DAB+ takes place in former TV bands. Several stations are bundled in a bouqet. In Germany, one usually is in comfortable reach of at least one of these bunches, see footprint on a map, with stations around my location:

map

Footprint of DAB+ broadcasts in Germany. Pin = my location. In the list you see the stations plus the channel (“bouquet”), here 5C omnidirectional from Hannover with 10 kW and 6C, also from Hannover, but pointed to the east, with 8 kW.

As AirSpy is covering also these frequencies with high sensitivity and a decent dynamic range, I gave it a try.

First software used is called Welle (English: wave) by a team around Albrecht Lohofener. I use it on a PC/W10. It’s easy to install, and then start it by the usual double-click. An MS-DOS windows opens, starting a routine for searching and opening the AirsSpy connected to your PC. This window informs you on all steps the software is doing.

Then the graphical user interface starts. First you have to scan the bands: click “Sendersuchlauf -> Start” (the software detects on what country code your OS is running and switches automatically to e.g. English), see screenshot:

Welle

The scan is running, 13 stations have been found so far. With expert mode (“Expertenmodus”) activated, you see the spectrum of the frequncy set being scanned.

From the spectrum (right), you might see if HF gain ius ok, or that you should go from automatic (“Auto HF-Verstärkung”) to manual gain control (“Manuelle Versätrkung”) to either imporve sensitivity or to avoid distortion due to strong transmitters nearby. With me, “Auto” drives fine.

After finishing the scan, “Welle”  comes down with the bouquets in reach:

Sputnik

Just click your station from the list on the left, and the station will be heard. Many of them provice additonal information, as here MDR Sputnik with weather. On the right you again see the spectrum of the whole bouquet (6B, 183,648 MHz) plus additional information an the quality.

Secondly, a more technical approach is offered by Jan van Katwijk with also free Qt-DAB. I also use it on my PC/W10. After downloading the suite, containing also other intersting software, just start “qt-dab-0.999”. An MS-DOS windows opens, followed after some seconds by the GUI. Here you have to define the receiver from a drop-down list, choose the boquet (5C, in this case), and scanning serves you the stations’ list. You may have up to five different windows open – from the MS-DOS window to more detailed technical data, including a QPSK phase window, right from the spectrum.

QT_2

Qt-DAB presents you with up to five windows: MS-DOS on top; gain control main window and technical data below, and spectrum plus QPSK phase constellation at the bottom. “Klassik Radio” on 173,352 MHz playing Bach: “What God does that is done well”. Not to talk of what the authors of the DAB software had done …

Thanks to both, Albrecht and Jan, to have developed this fine piece to software, free of charge!

Wake up – ICAO Selcals

If you ever had an ear on the aero bands, you are already familiar with ICAO Selcalls. With this 2 x 2 tone signal lasting for about 2,2 seconds, a Ground Station alerts a specific airplane to open up for communications. The short video on top of this page shows a typical initial contact, where Ground an Air are testing the Selcal.

This paper (click this hyperlink) describes on three pages with nine illustrations, one video and one audio the procedure and gives some background information. These may improve correct decoding of the somewhat delicate signals, as it will show how to look up the Selcal and follow the flight. BTW: It is planned to extend the pool of 16 tones to 32 tones by September 1st, 2016.

P.S. Remember to save the PDF and open it with a recent version of Acrobat Reader. Otherwise the multimedia (video, audio) will not work!

Monitoring, State-of-the-Art: In a Nutshell

As I was asked for a look onto my monitoring workbench, I decided to write it down. It’s not to show “the real stone”, but an invitation for discussing efficient workflows which State-of-the-Art technology has to offer.

This PDF of 13 pages contains 25 hopefully instructive illustrations to comprehend my approach to monitoring; or, in this case: Utility DXing. Part of this PDF is also a 2:50 video, showing how to stroll between aero channels and to decode ALE. This video is also placed on top of this page.

The paper explains in detail the advantages of leafing through recorded HF files using the technology of the “living sonogram”. It also discusses some efficient strategies of voice and data reception, eventually touching even documentation.

To make use of the video content, download it on your hard disk, save it and open it by the most recent version of your PDF reader. It works on a PC as well as on a Mac. You can download it here.

20 MHz HF: “HackRF One” on Shortwave

world Kopie

The world is full of software-defined radio (SDR), but HackRF One has a rather unique position – thanks to its vast maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz. With an up-converter, this combination covers more than 70 percent of the whole HF range from 3 to 30 MHz. Even better: with proper software you can record and play this enormous band!

However, this stunning bandwidth is achieved by a moderate resolution of 8 bit, resulting in a dynamic range of just nearly 50 dB. Or the half of SDRs like Elad’s FDM-S2.

Anyway. I wanted to know in practice what you can actually do with such a set at a budget price plus mostly free software. The results surprised even me: Properly used, this combination convinced as a quite decent performer on HF! The world map above shows some of the stations received with the set (see insert bottom left) to test its performance.

I laid down my experiences and recommendations for best reception in a paper of 17 multi-media pages full of examples – including 55 screenshots, 21 audio clips and one video. The PDF shows how to optimize reception of broadcast, utility and amateur radio stations. It covers many examples on how to analyze recordings, to decode data transmission with free software plus live decoding of 14 channels in parallel. It also gives some examples of combining HF reception with the internet, e.g. regarding the reception of signals from airplanes (ARINC, HFDL) and vessels (GMDSS).

My experiences really left me enthusiastic about this set.

You may share this enthusiasm and download the PDF of 43 MB here. Save it on your hard disk or USB stick, and open it with a most recent Adobe Reader. Otherwise, the multimedia content will not work.
[Einen deutschsprachigen Test  habe ich jeweils als Titelgeschichte in der April- Ausgabe 2017 der Fachzeitschrift  Radio-Kurier – weltweit hören und in der Mai-Ausgabe der Fachzeitschrift Funktelegramm veröffentlicht.]

Code3-32P: A truly professional Decoder – Tested in the real World

Abbildung 12

HOKA’s Code3-32P is a truly professional decoder in a price class which will fit into most hobby budgets. Together with Roland Proesch’s Frequency Manager it makes an even stronger companion (with your Perseus SDR) in decoding and analyzing many digimodes.

This paper is an introduction into this decoder. It’s written in German, but 17 illustrations plus Google’s Translator will help you.

Nach wie vor ist der Code3-32P von HOKA ein starker Decoder und ein zuverlässiges Analysewerkzeug für Digimodes zu einem verhältnismäßig kleinen Preis. Zusammen mit dem Frequency Manager von Roland Proesch bildet er ein nochmals stärkeres Gespann (dann gemeinsam mit dem Perseus SDR).

Dieses deutschsprachige PDF bietet auf 18 Seiten eine reich illustrierte Einführung in den Code3-32P – mit Beispielen aus der wirklichen Welt, jenseits des Deutschen Wetterdienstes …

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