Category Archives: Broadcast

Seeing is believing: Tableau visualizing MWLIST

All medium wave stations from MWLIST, drawn with free Tableau software: the size of the circles represents the power of the stations, the colour the type of network.

Broadcasting on medium wave still is a very active part of using the electromagnetic spectrum. An unique and outstanding source of information is supplied for free by MWLIST, a team of smart DXers. They provide tons of up-to-date and precise information – down to exact locations and even offsets from the nominal channel.

By visualizing those data, you get an even better insight. Here, free Tableau Public software is (for me) the tool of choice to do just that – please see the screenshot on top of this page. You simply download the free Tableau app, and – also for free – sign up, and you are done.

For me, most striking is visualizing the spatial data, i.e. to show the transmitters at their proper place on a map. Another welcome feature is filtering the data to answer specific questions like: How are traffic broadcast stations above 1.6 MHz spread over Pennsylvania? Or: What can I expect listening on 1521kHz on a late winter afternoon in Europe? Or: Where are Chinese stations located, carrying the CNR1 programme of China National Radio? You will find screenshots illustrating these examples below.

Those are just screenshots, not active maps. If you want active maps, there is an option (WP-TAB, Tableau Public Viz Block) available for WordPress’ business version which I don’t have at hand.
But there is a simple solution: go to my Tableau Public page, download my TWBX-map “Medium Wave Station [Copyright MW List]”, and it will automatically be loaded into your Tableau Public app – after you have installed this. Then the map comes into live, and you can do all filtering, zooming etc.

[My profile photo shows a fisher’s deity in Japan, seen in October 2019 in Tokyo’s Kappabashi street. As a DXer and hobby cook, I thought location and statue being quite appropriate – thanks for asking …]

Surely, you immediately will find other ideas to realize, e.g. marking heard/verified signals by just a flag in your list and combining this with a special color on that station on your Tableau map.

Kiashahr broadcasting center of IRIB, the Iranian broadcaster, on the shores of the Caspian Sea. All three antenna sites are pinpointed on Tableau’s “Satellite” background map. Listen to the recording of IRIB Gilan (from the antennas at the left) below:
IRIB Radio Gilan, received on December 30, 2020 at 14:30 UTC in Germany.
Traffic broadcast in Pennsylvania duly follows the trail like pearls on a string, here e.g. US Highway 80 in the mid of the screenshot.
1521 kHz on a winter afternoon in Europe: What stations can be expected, and what interference should be avoided? MWLIST’s spatial data plus Tableau’s power of filtering the data and drawing it onto a map will show this at a glance.
How are transmitter, carrying the CNR1 programme, scattered over China? This screenshot will tell.

P.S.: Taking some suggestions from the fruitful discussion which follows the initial publication of this site, I like to add some more examples:

If you are looking for some challenges, a European listener may start with low-power stations in the UK (LPAM), transmitting with just 1 Watt of power, leaving 500mW from both sidebands, combined, for the audio at max. Filtering the MWLIST with Tableau Public and visualizing this by a map, leads to the screenshot below. I also attached an audio clip of Carillon Radio. Yes, reception quality of this station of the Leicester/Loughborough hospital resembles a bit the state of NHS 😉

All LAPM stations in the AM band do transmit with 1 watt of power only. They place a nice challenge for European listeners …
LPAM Carillon Radio on 1386kHz/1W, received on December 27, 2020 near Hanover/Northern Germany. Antenna: MD300DX active vertical dipole, receiver: Winradio Sigma.

A second example is even more challenging for European DXers, but not entirely impossible. The map shows some low-power Japanese service radio stations for parks, traffic, weather and harbours.

MWLIST has been filtered, so that Tableau’s map shows just the low-power Japanese service radio stations in the x-band (i.e. above 1602kHz. Reception of those stations in Europe is challenging, but possible, as …
… this recording of Tokyo Martis Radio [highlighted on the map above] on October 23, 2019 on 1663.5kHz shows at 10:00 UTC. The audio clip was extracted by DK8OK from a HF recording [WAV] at Norway’s KONG station, with sincere thanks to Bjarne Mjelde.

Switching-on HF Transmitters: Step by step

Voice of Turkey, Emirler, signing on: 9880 kHz, The ABB transmitter SK5SC3-2P is switched to full poer [500kW] in five steps within about three seconds.

Recently, I came across the different sign-on ceremonies of different transmitters. The idea is to understand this workflow in which obviously several stages of the transmitter are switched on consecutively. See at the top one example, where Voice of Turkey is swithcing on their transmitter on 9880kHz in five steps within about three seconds.

The diagram was made with Simon Brown’s unique software SDRC V3. I used the Signals Analyser module, providing a (needed!) time resolution of down to just one millisecond, or 1000 values of level vs. frequency in just one second! These data (CSV) had been exported and visualized in QtiPlot software.

I would like to encourage other people to join these observations. One goal can be toi fingerprint no only a transmitter, but also the workflow of the people at the transmitter. Please refer to this website for a database of broadcasters and their transmitters plus galore of associated data.

In the meantime, I already observed a couple of different workflows/transmitters. Please keep in mind that all these measurements (better: estimations), of course, are prone to fading. You may also see some effects during sign-on in the spectrogram, see below.

Radio Saudi, signing on, 17’615kHz at 12:57 UTC on 02APR2020. You clearly see at least three different steps of power plus some transient when switiching to full power.

FM-DX: How to Identify very short openings – a few examples

42 seconds in a recording of 12 hours length – a “blob” in V3’s “Analyser” module reveals a DX chance.

In the last weeks, I had used Sporadic-E conditions to stroll a bit in the FM broadcast band in search for DX. Elad’s FDM-S3 covers the whole 20 MHz wide band, and Simon Brown’s SDRC V3 software again provides an unique and most valuable tool to dig out DX. Antenna is an active Dressler ARA-200 (R.I.P.).

This blog entry shows how to make use of short openings of only some (ten) seconds.

First step is to record the whole FM broadcast band for hours on external HD. Then you make up so-called “spectrograms” by V3’s Analyser module. This provides you with a picture of activity (signal strengths color-coded) over time and frequency – see screenshot at top of this blog.

Scrolling through this spectrogram, you can make out even the shortest openings. Just click onto one of them, and the software instantaneously tunes into it. The sensitive RDS decoder of V3 is doing the last step – showing its RDS identification.

The short video below gives one example from a recording of June 26, 2020. On 91.8 MHz, I received semi-local transmitter NDR 1 NDS at Visselhövede (5kW@67 km distance), with “Stand by me”. From the spectrogram, I saw a “blob” (see screenshot at the top of this blog), stretching over around 40 seconds. It turned out to be Algerian’s Akfadou transmitter with Chaine 2 programme, 70 kW ERP@1’810km distance! RDS did tell me. Just have a look at the short video below which was made with V3’s video recorder …

First “Stand by me” by a local transmitter, then CHAINE 2 drops in for about 40 seconds, after the local transmitter takes over again.

V3 software provides also an a-symmetrical tuning of bandwidth, even at wide FM/BFM. This is important to identify some stations “in the clear” – if they are prone to some spillover from a local/regional station right on an adjacent channel. The following example spots Radio Marca/Mallorca from Spain on 91.6 MHz, suffering not only from a a strong local just 100 kHz below, but also from a very short appearance “out of the blue”, to where it disappeared again after less than 30 seconds. The latter is shown in the spectrogram, made by the Analyser, where I magnified the small/short signal of Radio Marca over 1’541 km. The video at the bottom shows how to evade the interference from the channel below to get the RDS code “B002 R.MARCA” correct.

On an empty channel, a stations pops up for 28 seconds. Pinpointed by V3’s “Analyser”, decoded as RDS “B002” Radio Marca from Na Burguessa/Mallorca in Spain by the RDS decoder.
With a strong local just 100 kHz below, a-symmetrically tuning the bandwidth helps to identifythe very short pop-up of Radio Marca/Mallorca on 91.6 MHz by RDS.

Sometimes propagtion is too short for any identifcation, neither RDS, nor by announcement. Take the next screenshots as example: The spectrogram shows some very short openings revealing similar pattern which cropping the recording (Crop – > Apply) confirms. It turns out to be an English-speaking stations for a maximum of ten seconds. Parallel listening reveals the same programme on the following eight frequencies: 88.3MHz, 88.4MHz, 88.5MHz, 88,7MHz, 88.9MHz, 89.1MHz, 89.7MHz and 89.8MHz. The only intersection turns out to be Raidió Teilifís Éireann from different locations with their Radio 1 programme.

Up to ten seconds in a ten hours’ recording, marked by a rectangle in the spectrogramme: whodunit?
All nine stations carried a broadcast in English, eight of them in parallel, only that on 89.6MHz remaining unidentified. The solution is easy …

RTE transmitter usually do have RDS onboard, but here the time with a modest signal was too short to raise the alarm. On the other hand, there are stations with RDS, but not programmed or even without RDS at all. Take Radio Tisnath/Algeria in Tamazight, a Berber language, as an example for the first and Radio Blagovestiye/Russia as an example for the latter:

Radio Tisnath from Djebel Tissalah/Algeria [2’091km] should carry RDS-ID of “2202 CHAINE2”, which didn’t pop up – in spite of the good signal. At least a station identification was heard, alas, a bit distorted after a programme in Tamazight in the clear
As with all OIRT band stations, also Radio Blagovestiye from Voronezh/G-Tsa Brono in Russia [1’984km) doesn’t carry any RDS information. You have to wait for the announcement – as here – or to collect some other information to identify such a station.

Sporadic-E Reception: Some Notes

Running from top to bottom: that’s DX! The spectrogram runs from 87.5 MHz to 94.5 MHz. The lower part shows Sporadic-E conditions around 18:00 UTC, the upper part was switched to 19:37 UTC when Sporadic-E had largely disappeared. 29May2020.

When HF collects new power for the autumn season, it’s time to thrown an ear onto VHF. I did so in May 2020, and the spectrogram at the top should give you an impression of the power and glory with with Sporadic-E fills the ORT band and the FM broadcast band. Having published some audio examples from both bands in the two recent posts, I now want to make some comments on this exciting propagation mode.

One signature of Sporadic-E is a highly selective propagation in respect to geographical regions – resembling a laser pointer. Please find below an example of just 90 seconds on 93.9 MHz on 29May2020, around 18:00 UTC (the vertical interruption at the last quarter of the audio spectrogram. It starts with a powerful-modulated, yet unidentified, Italien station with pop music. Then, Radio Constanine from Kef El Akhal (per RDS 2425) takes over with a distinctive (lower) sound, gevoerning the channel for a time, until the Italian comes through again. If play the audio clip and following its spectrogram in parallel, you surely will see what I mean.

93.9 MHz: Two stations on one channel, see text. The vertical frequency is in the logarithmic style to enhance the visibility of the most important speech formants. Listen to audio clip below.
Here you can listen to what is shown in the spectrogram above: two different stations fighting on 93.9 MHz.

Parallel listening on two channels is an essential tool to identify the same station on different channels. Place one (e.g. the left) audio channel on one frequency, and the other audio channel with a 2nd RX on the other (in this case: right channel). This can be done easily with SDRC V3 software. There will always be a time lag between both channels for at least two reasons: the main reason is that two frequencies are usually coming from two different locations, fed over different lines from the studio which causes a slight time difference. The other reason: different RXs in SDRC V3 software ore not phase-synchronized, so there is a small difference. Another difference might occur from different propagation time from two locations (300 km = 1ms!).

The screenshot below shows a typical setup: on 87.7 MHz a station in Arabic was heard. It was set onto RX1/left audio channel. To identify this station, RX2 was set to the right audio channel. Leaving RX1 on its frequency as the reference channel, RX2 was tuned to other channels with Arabic programme. The first hit was made on 87,6 MHz, second on 90,8 MHz, third on 92.5 MHz – all carrying the same programme. Hence, it was very likely SNRT Al Idaa Al-Watania from Morocco from four different locations at distances from 2312 to 2613 km.

Searching parallel programs: right (as basic) audio channel on 87.7 MHz, left audio channel on 90,9 MHz showed programmmes being (largely) in parallel – see the spectrum, and listen to the audio, both below.
Spectrogram of both channels of the audio clip below: left audio = top, right audio = bottom In the first few seconds, including the time-beeps, 87.7 MHz produces “Radio Chlef” from Bou Kadir/Algeria (1963 km), according RDS. Then SNRT Al Idaa-Watani from Midell (2498 km) takes over.
Listen to the above spectrogram in stereo. Soon you will hear that 90.8 MHz lags a bit in time. And that in the first seconds both channels are not in parallel.

The Radio Data System RDS provides an identifcation and often some additional information. First, you see the “Programm Identification Code – RDS-PI”. This is used to support an automatically scan of the receiver to tune always the best channel of this programme. Hence, it designates a programme which is used throughout a chaine of programmes. The “Programme Service Code – PDS-PS” needs a bit longer and gives, if programmed, additional information. As the RDS signal sits on edge of the channel and is quite slow, it is a bit delicate to receive from weak stations under interference. The first example below gives a full-blown RDS signal from a local broadcaster, followed by some RDS signals from DX stations.

Here you see all elements of an FM multplexed (local) stereo signal. The double-peak on the righ is the DSB-modulated RDS signal.
A selection of received RDS signals, in reading direction: 92AA Top Albania (1356 km), 505F Radio Sound/Italy, 5264 RDS/Italy (1304 km), 11DE Radio Epirus/Greece (1648 km), 5201 RAI Radio 1 /Italy (1635 km), Radio Soummam/Algeria (1810 km), E2ED Europa FM/Spain (1364 km), 2202 Chaine 2/Algeria (1802 km)

Fading can be nerve-wrecking. Stations come and go. And they reliably go at top of the hour when the listener expects a station identification … Below I compared the signal from a still near-regional transmitter at a distance of 83 km with that of Radio Constatine/Algeria, 1802 km away. The grey block marks the limit, whre Radio Constanine can be demodulated.

Sporadic-E: Some Examples FM-Band/Broadcast

Three in a row: Reception from three stations from Algeria at the same time over a distance of about 1’800 km on 31May2020, 12:00 UTC

Again, Sporadic-E reception. Now some examples from the FM Broadcast Band (87.5 to 108.0 MHz), as received in spring 2020 at my location in Northern Germany. See my former post for examples from the OIRT FM Band.

87,9 MHz: Radio France Culture, Porto Vecchio (1208 km), ID, 31May2020, 12:00 UTC.

88,8 MHz: Radio Annaba, Souk Aras/Algeria (1791 km). ID in Arabic, 31May2020, 15:00 UTC

90,4 MHz: Radio Setif FM, Setif/Algeria (1829 km). ID in Arabic, 29MAY2020, 18:28 UTC

91,9 MHz: Rádio Comercial, Serra de Bornes/Portugal (1772 km). ID-jingle in Portuguese. 29May2020, 17:50 UTC.

95,1 MHz: BBC Radio 4 FM from Eitshal/Isle of Lewis (1224 km). BBC-ID, 31May2020, 15:00 UTC.

94,1 MHz: Top Albania Radio/Shkoder (1356 km). ID in Albanian. 29May2020, 17:00 UTC

100.7 MHz: Radio Coran-Algerie from Kef El Akhal [1802 km]. ID in Arabic. 31May2020, 12:00 UTC.

102,3 MHz: Nevis Radio/Mallaig, UK (1139 km). 29May2020, 11:00 UTC.

92,8 MHz: Radio Energy, Kiew (1428 km), ID in Ukrainian, 31May2020, 15:53 UTC.

97,8 MHz: Radio Azzura, Marsala/Sicily (1640 km). ID in Italian, 31May2020, 15:02 UTC

Clandestine: Under false Flags

Clandestines on shortwave: Transmitter’s locations. For an interactive version of this map click here.

Non-official radio stations always attracted shortwave listeners who call them “clandestines”, follwing a mixture of mis-understanding and romanticism. The range of this class of stations is remarkably wide. Nowadays, the majority of them is renting time from major transmission centres like Nauen/Germany, Issoudun/France or Toshkent/Uzbekistan.

As all media, they are put into service to influence people and to sell something by propaganda. The difference between an official broadcaster, like Voice of America, and a “clandestine” like North Korea Reform Radio is not palpable – both are financed by the U.S. Congress.

With most broadcasters transmitting on a scale between facts (“white” – nearly only the BBC) and sheer disinformation (“black”), clandestines are placed on the darker third of this range. The separation between “clandestine” and “official” is rather artificial. There simply is no difference between e.g. the official World Harvest Radio and the clandestine Voice of Wilderness, both religious brodcasters, funded by Cornerstone Ministries International/USA – to take just two religious stations.

Today’s activity of clandestines is concentrated on Africa and Asia with especially taking countries like North Korea, China, Eritrea and Sudan into focus.

Some clandestines are jammed, mostly by official broadcasters of the target countries with more or less their usual broadcast; rarely by transmitters just carrying noise.

All known clandestines are official in the sense that the government of the transmitting country knows about their activity and, tacitly at least, is endorsing it. More often than not, clandestines are simply the grey/black arm of their governmental propaganda, like the South Korean “Echo of Hope”, presumably maintained by a (however, non-existing) “General Union of Overseas Compatriots” which in fact turned out to be the South Korean National Intelligence Service NIS.

If you want to look behind the veil, just “follow the money”. In most cases you will land at the U.S. Congress (see illustration below) or some other governmental entities of a third country. Yes, also take care of NGOs, as some (not all) of these “Non-governmental Organizations” are funded by – nothing more but governments of a third country; a system much reminding to money laundering or the game “three shells and a pea”.

“Free press”, western style: How the USA mislead listeners by feigning broadcasts via independent journalists and NGOs.

The overwhelming number of clandestines orignates from “the West”. You can play bullshit bingo with their names or the names of their funding organizations containing: “freedom”, “democracy” and “independence” at the least. That they are running under false flags, gives the right impression of how some kind of journalism works in “the West”.

The authoritative World Radio TV Handbook has an own section of “Clandestine and other target broadcasts”. Please find below some examples out of their 2020’s edition (pp. 509) plus some examples following my a bit wider definition of a clandestine station: each station, which intentionally disguises their source. So you will find Azadradio, but not “Voice of America/VoA Deewa Radio”, although both are financed by the U.S. government.

All stations had been received between December 2019 and April 2020 in Northern Germany. Their reception quality, of course, is very different; for some of them you should put your headphones over.

The following 27 audio clips, appearing in their target countries’ order (or, the country to/against which people/government their transmissions are targeted), were made from wide-band HF recordings with Winradio’s Über-SDR Excalibur Sigma, connected to MD300DX antenna, an active dipole, hung vertical, with 2 x 5m legs; software: SDRC V3.

P.S.: I know, you must not scroll. But please allow me for an expcetion in this case.

Azadradio with their headquarters in Kabul is a branch of RFE/RL, a mouthpiece of the U.S. government. Transmitting towards Afghanistan in Pashtu and Dari.

Azadradio: 17’880 kHz [Udon Thani/Thailand, 250kW], ID in Dari at 00:19; 13:30 UTC, 02APR2020

Voice of Free Talyshistan is transmitted by the Modus Vivendi Center, based in Yerevan/Armenia. Chairman of this non-governmental organization is Armenian lawyer, historian and diplomat Ara Papian. In an interview with TERT [an Armenian media] he supports Armenia’s president that “[land-locked] Armenia must divide [oil-rich] Azerbaijan [at Caspian Sea] as a political unit, cooperating with stateless nations”. One of this “stateless nation” are the Taliysh people, representing 1,4% of the people of Azerbaijan. Hence, Voice of Free Talyshtan is an instrument to separate a future and Armenia-friendly “Talyshistan” from Azerbaijan.

Voice of Free Talyshistan: 1395 kHz [Gavra/Armenia 500 kW?], ID in Talysh, 17:15 UTC, 16DEC2019

Radio Ndarason Internationale is based in N’djamena, the Chad’s capital. It is aimed to the people in the Northern Nigeria and Chad region and is directed against the islamic Boko Haram network. The programme is produced by Johannesburg-based Okapi Consulting, a “media consulting agency”, maintaining no less than five radio stations. Radio Ndarason is aired by BBC transmitters from Wofferton/UK and Ascension.

Radio Ndarason: 12’050kHz [Woofferton/UK, 100kW], IDs in Kanuri, 19:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

CHINA [1] [among others]
Radio Free Asia was founded by the US Congress and is financed by the USA as part of their foreign policy. Part of its task is to encourage separating movements – e.g. in China with transmissions in Tibetian and Uyghur; the common pattern of this kind of stations, see also the Azerbaijan entry above.

Radio Free Asia: 9355kHz [Dushanbe-Yangi Yul/Tajikistan, 200kW], start of transmission in Tibetian with ID “RFA, channel 3” {00:30], marking their virtual “Channel 3” via Eutelsat-70B and Intelsat-19. From 00:41, a transmission from China in Mandarin is also occupying the channel.

China [2]

Sound of Hope with headquarters in San Francisco/USA, is the broadcasting arm of Falun Gong. This organization covers a wide spectrum of religious, economical and political fields. It is controversly debated over in the West as in the East. In China, it is forbidden. SoH uses a couple of more or less low-power and frequency-agile transmitters from said locations in Taiwan; also Thailand is rumored. By errors in switching the audio onto a transmitter, I heard also the sound of Radio Free Asia’s Mandarin channel on some of their 100+ frequencies. China performs cat-and-mouse games to place one of their much more powerful transmitters on some of SoH’s active and ever-changing channels. Sound of Hope usually transmits some ±100Hz off nominal channels and also often outside the brodcasting bands to evade jamming. Funding is done by Falun Gong plus, presumably, also by the U.S. government via their USAGM.

Sound of Hope: 15’939.8kHz [“somewhere in Taiwan, a few kW”], IDs [“Xi wang zhi sheng guoji guangbo diantai”] at 00:12 [female] and 00:40 [male]; 08:00 UTC, 16DEC2019]

Voice of Tibet is producing from Dharamsala/India and promotes Tenzin Gyatso (Dalai Lama), living in exile in just this city. He himself considers the radiostation, as it “… allows us Tibetans to comment on events of Tibetan interest from our own perspective”. Voice of Tibet is funded by a Norwegian charitable foundation (Stiftelsen Tibetprojekt). It is mostly transmitting ±1 kHz off an designated channel.

Voice of Tibet: 9899kHz [Toshkent/Uzbekistan, 100kW], ID [“Di nor we bod kyi rlung ‘phrin kang yin”] at start of their transmission; 12:30UTC, 16DEC2019

CUBA [1]
Radio República is produced by Florida-based Directorio Democrático Cubano and transmitted via Issoudun/France.

Radio República: 9490kHz [Issoudun/France, 150kW], start of transmission in Spanish with ID, 02:00UTC, 16DEC2019

CUBA [2]

Radio Televisión Martí is produced by the Miami-based Office of Cuba Broadcasting, a branch of the U.S. Agency for Global Media, USAGM. This, in turn, is part of the U.S. federal entity “Broadcasting Board of Governors” – the usual matryoshka concept of a puppet in a puppet in a puppet, all firmly hanging on the strings of their government. They mention “democracy”, “independant”? Bingo!

Radio Televisión Martí: 7335kHz [Greenville/USA, 250kW], ID in Spanish; 03:00 UTC, 02APR2020

Radio Erena is produced by Eritrean journalists in Paris and is supported by by Reporters without Borders.

Radio Erena: 9720kHz [Sofia-Kostinbrod/Bulgaria, 200kW], ID in Tigrinya; 17:20 UTC, 18APR2020

Voice of Oromo Liberation is maintained by the Oromo Liberation Front, with the programme presumably produced in Berlin/Germany.

Voice of Oromo Liberation: 15’420kHz [Nauen/Germany, 125kW], ID in Oromo [“Kun Sagalee Bilisummaa Oromoo”], the slight echo comes from from the difference of short path and long path propagation; 17:00UTC, 23APR2020


Radio Farda with their headquarters in Prague/Czech Republic is a branch of RFE/RL, a mouthpiece of the U.S. government. Transmitting towards Iran in Farsi.

Radio Farda: 12’005kHz [Woofferton/UK, 300kW], rest of “Born in the USA”, followed by ID in Farsi; 13:30 UTC, 02APR2020

KOREA [North] [1]
Furusato no Kaze/Ilbon-ui Baram is officially brodcasted by the Japanese Government “to Japanese people who have abducted by North Korea and are still trapped in North Korea”. They are the same stations with Furusato no Kaze (Wind from the Homeland) is broadcasting in Japanese, whereas Ilbon-ui Baram (Wind from Japan) transmits in Korean. Both IDs are presented by each an audio clip.

Furusato no Kaze: 9705kHz [Baujong/Taiwan, 300kW], ID in Japanese; 14:30 UTC, 16DEC2019
Ilbon-ui Baram: 9705kHz [Baujong/Taiwan, 300kW], ID in Japanese; 13:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [2]
Voice of Wilderness is produced in Seoul/Korea by the religious organisation Voice of Wilderness Ministries, based in “Tamil Nadu/South India”. As far as I understood their sermon, they believe in “a second coming of Jesus” – excactly the problem, that mankind and especially the targeted people in North Korea are interested in most. They seem to be affiliated to Cornerstone Ministries/USA and Korean Reconciliation Initiatice and Network, wanting to “restore the church” in North Korea.

Voice of Wilderness: 7615kHz [Toshkent/Uzbekistan, 100kW], ID in Korean; 14:00, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [3]

National Unity Radio is produced by Unification Media Group, based in Seoul. Telling the public they are a non-governmental organization (NGO), this group in fact in funded by U.S. Congress.

National Unity Radio: 9445kHz [Toshkent/Uzbekistan, 100kW], ID in Korean; 13:00, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [4]
Shiokaze is maintained by the Investigation Commission on Missing Japanese Probably Related to North Korea/COMJAN – a self-explaining name. On their website is also a banner of an otherwise silent “Strategic Intelligence Institute”.

Shiokaze: 6145kHz [Tokyo-Yamata, 300kW], ID in Japanese, Qinghai PBS on same channel, 13:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [5]
Echo of Hope claims to be produced by the otherwise non-existing “General Union of Oversea’s Compatriots” which is an echo of South Korea’s National Intelligence Service NIS, in turn being an echo of the South Korean Government.

Echo of Hope: 6250kHz [Taereung/Seoul, 10kW], ID in Korean, 15:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [6]
North Korea Reform Radio maintained by the so-called NGO North Korea Development Institute which in financed by the U.S. foundation “National Endwonment for Democracy”, funded by grants from the U.S. Congress.

North Korea Reform Radio: 7590kHz [Toshkent/Uzbekistan], start of transmission in Korean, 14:30 UTC, 16DEC2019

Korea [North] [7]
Voice of the People, operated by the South Korean National Intelligence Service by another yet unknown organization, dubbed “Korean Workers Union”.

Voice of the People: 3915kHz [Goyan/Seoul, 50kW], ID in Korean, 15:00UTC, 16DEC2019

Dandal Kura Radio International, funded by USAID, an organization under the US Department of State. It is aimed to the people in the Northern Nigeria and Chad region and is directed against the islamic Boko Haram network.

Dandal Kuraa Radio International: 13’590kHz [Nauen/Germany, 125kW], ID in Kanuri at 01:08; 07:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

Mashaalradio with their headquarters in Prague/Czech Republic is a branch of RFE/RL, a mouthpiece of the U.S. government. Transmitting towards Pakistan in Urdu.

Mashaalradio: 15’360kHz [Udon Thani/Thailand, 250kW]; ID at 00:35 in Urdu, 12:00 UTC, 02APR2020

RUSSIA [among others]
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, now only a shadow of itself, was in nearly all aspects a role model of this kind of propaganda radio. Founded in 1949/1953 by an organization fully funded by the CIA (until 1972), it played a major role in Cold War’s “War with Waves”. It remains an United States Government-funded media agency until today with still a few outlets on medium wave and HF, covering East Europe as well as Russia, Iran, Central Asia, Caucasus, Southeast Asia and the Balkans.

Radio Free Europe [Radio Svoboda]: 1386kHz [Viešintos/Lithuania, 75kW], start of transmission in Russian with ID and news; 18:00 UTC, 02APR2020

Eye Radio is operated by Eye Media Ltd. and was/is supported by USAID, an organization under the US Department of State.

Eye Radio: 7340kHz [Santa Maria Galeria/Vatican, 250kW], ID in an Arabic-like dialect; 04:00 UTC, 16DEC2019


Radio Tamazuj is produced by the organization “Free Press Unlimited”, which is largely (89%) funded by the government of the Netherlands. Additional 8% of the budget comes from the Dutch Postcode Lottery. Targetting the people on both sides of the border between South Sudan and Sudan.

Radio Tamazuj: 11’705kHz [Talata Volonondry/Malagasy, 250kW], ID in Arabic-like dialect; ID at 00:38, 15:00 UTC, 16DEC2019

Radio Dabanga is produced by the organization “Free Press Unlimited”, which is largely (89%) funded by the government of the Netherlands. Additional 8% of the budget comes from the Dutch Postcode Lottery. Targetting the people on both sides of the border between South Sudan and Sudan.

Radio Dabanga: 7315kHz [Santa Maria Galeria/Vatican, 250kW], ID in an Arabic-like dialect; 04:30 UTC, 16DEC2019

TURKEY [among others]
Radio Dengê Welat is the third metamorphosis of what started in 2012 as Radio Dengê Mezopotamya, to be changed fived years later into Radio Dengê Kurdistanê. It transmits in four Kurdish dialects to Kurdish people. Their headquarters are said to be in Belgium in Denderleeuw near Brussels. It is backed by Uppsala-based Stiftelsen Kurdisk Media.

Radio Dengê Welat: 11’530kHz [Kishinev-Grigoriopol/Moldova, 300kW], ID in a Kurdish dialect at 00:41; 09:00UTC, 02APR2020

YEMEN [and others]
Radio Al-Azm is a branch of the Saudi Arab Broadcasting Authority with their programme aimed to Saudi military personnel in southern Saudi Arabia and Yemen

Radio Al-Azm [presumed]: 11’745kHz [Jeddah/Saudi Arabia, 250kW], in Arabic

Nĭ hăo, Xinjiang Broadcasting Station!

Still going strong since 1949: Radio Xinjiang, here their banner in Chinese and Mongolian; from their Mongolian website.

Okay, the birthday flowers are already letting hang their heads – but better late than never: Happy birthday, Radio Xinjiang, XJBS!

It was founded in the same year as the People’s Republic of China itself. Only the 1957 edition of the authorative World Radio Handbook took a first notice of their shortwave transmitters at Ürümqi. One of these frequencies, namely 4500 kHz, is still active today.

Among DXers, Radio Xinjiang is a welcomed signal from their transmitters at Ürümqi-Hutubi and at Ürümqi-Changii, some ten kilometeres northwest of Xinjiang’s capital Ürümqi, all in the north-west corner of China.

XJBS’ shortwave transmits in Uighur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Mandarin (“Chinese”) to serve the majority of listeners in each their mother tongue. Please find below their station’s announcement in each of those language. I especially like the “Nĭ hăo, Xinjiang” of the Mandarin recording at second 20. The announcer must have seen Good Morning, Vietnam, undoubtedly echoing Adrian Cronauer [the late Robin Williams].
Just for conaisseurs: in the YouTube clip, Adrian mentioned “Hanoi Hannah”, or Trịnh Thị Ngọ, a popular radio announcer at Radio Hanoi from 1965 airing three shows per day in English, directed towards US GIs. She left microphone only in 1973, after the USA fled from her country.

The following audio clips from my 25MHz/24h recording of December 16, 2019, received with Winradio’s Über-SDR Excalibur Sigma, connected to MD300DX antenna, an active dipole, hung vertical, with 2 x 5m legs.

Mandarin: “Gooood moorning, Xinjiiaaaaang!” 5960kHz, 02:00 UTC
Uighur: 6120kHz, 00:00UTC
Mongolian: 6190kHz, 02:00UTC
Kazakh: 6015kHz, 03:00UTC

I will come back to this interesting station with an analysis of their alltogether 24 HF frequencies between 3950kHz and 13670kHz here in Northern Germany in December 2019, as well as in early April 2020.

P.S. Below a QSL of this station, from 1984 on 4735kHz.

HF Broadcast still in fine health!

Screenshot of interactive Tableau.Map of HF broadcasters; see text

The news about the death of HF Broadcast are greatly exaggerated. The map on the top presents 574 active stations, scattered all over the world. This interactive map has been made with free Tableau Public software: simply click onto the map, an in another tab of your browser it pops up. Now you can point your mouse to a mark and see some data.

There even is more: as some transmitting sites are used by several broadcasters, this fact is shown by different colors. Your mouse will tell.

The best thing of this map is the fact that it is strictly geo-referenced. If you zoom into a station, you should directly see the transmitting site form above – depending, of course, from the resolution of the underlying OSM satellite map.

After having scrutinzed all sources (HFCC, WRTH …) available, I finally decided for ILGRadio. Only these data are concise, complete and precise – a great achievement of Bernd Friedewald since decades! [To keep things simple, only one transmitter’s power is noted for each site]

This map, together with ILGRadio (see below), works as a promising starting point of future work, e.g. band scans in the light of the 21st century …

Just a very small part of Bernd’s excellent ILGRadio list, opened in DBF Manager software, but matching perfectly to be tracked when tuning your receiver; with a choice of SDR software like SDRC V3 and CSVUB.

Winter and Spring: Comparing Signal Strengths

IRAN INTERNATIONAL’s relay station south of Tashkent/Uzbekistan, received on December 16, 2019 (blue line) and April 2, 2020 (yellow line). Day/night below, top pair for Tashkent, lower pair for DK8OK, on the two dates, respectively.

IRAN INTERNATIONAL is transmitting in Farsi via their relay station just at the outskrits of Uzbekistan’s capital, Toshkent, with 100kW on 6270kHz from 12:00 to 04:00 UTC, directed towards Iran.

I received this station in winter as in spring. In winter (namely 16DEC2019), the whole transmission from sign-on to sign-off can be received, wheras in spring (namely 02DEC2020) a considerable part of the transmission after sign-on has been lost in the noise, plus the time towards sign-off in the morning largely coinciding with fade-out; though still celarly visible.

You see also a clear greyline enhancement at least on the fade-in. Sunrise and sunsetset for both locations can be seen from the bar chart below in the diagram..

Path Tashkent-DK8OK of Apbil2, 2020 at 16:00 UTC, path length 4550km.

The graphs are based on 2 x 86’400 points each, providing a time resolution of one second. To make things more clearly, the bold blue and yellow lines represent a smoothed version (moving average: 601).

This is just one example of how the actual signal strength of a station differs from season to season. With 24 hours’s recordings of the whole HF on both dates, it is easy to compare also other stations and frequency ranges. If I have time, I will add some more examples in the future.

BTW: I passed the big transmission center southwest of Toshkent left-hand, riding M39 on the way to Samarkand; it was not encouraged to take any photos …

Receiver: Winradio’s Excalibur Sigma
Antenna: active vertical dipole (2 x 5 m) MD300DX
Software: V3 by Simon Brown, G4ELI, QtiPlot and DX Atlas

Fade-in: Voice of Broad Masses, Asmara/Eritrea

Figure 1: Signal strength of VoBM on 7140kHz from s/on around 14:06 UTC to s/off around 18:30 UTC.

The evening transmission of the Voice of Broad Masses from Asmara-Selae Daro in Eritrea signs on around 14:06 UTC and signing off around 18:30 UTC. Figure 1 shows the signal levels with a resolution of one second, marked by red points, and the smoothed level, yellow line, with a moving average of 601 points, or 10 ten minutes. Smoothed levels span a range from -106 dBm/Hz to -80 dBm/Hz.

There occur considerable peaks around 14:30 UTC, 16:15 UTC and 17:30 UTC. Raytracing the signal, transmitted by a Quadrant antenna HQ1/.25, will help to reveal some mechanics behind the curve.

Figure 2: At s/on, we have a four-hop propagation via the F1 layer, carrying the main signal.

Figure 2 shows a four-hop propagation via F1 layer at 140-160km with a relative steep elevation of about 22°. The much shorter hops, reflected at the E-layer at a height of about 100km, are of less to no importance. The signal gets through, but very weak. The path itself still is in full sunshine, see Figure 3.

Figure 3: At s/on just after 14:00 UTC, the path between Asmara and DK8OK still is in full daylight.

There is a very short, but distinctive peak at 14:30 UTC. This coincides with a similar short time of three-hop propagation (Figure 4) from a very low azimuth of 3°. Of course, the full path still is in daylight.

Figure 4: Around 14:30 UTC, signal improved a bit as a three-hop propagation (still via F1) comes into play.

Just after 16:30 UTC and near sunset at the transmitter (16:37 UTC), there is reached the bottom of kind of a “Hillary Step” before the last run to the peak. The way to a (quite short) plateau starts around 17:00 UTC. There we have a textbook-like two-hop propagation (Figure 5) with the greyline covering just more than half of the great circle path (Figure 6). There, an elevation of under 5° is needed.

Figure 5: From around 17:00 UTC, a time of good reception starts. Reason is the textbook-like two-hop propagation.
Figure 6: With more than half of the great circle path in darkness, VoBM puts a fine signal into Germany.

Receiver: Winradio’s Excalibur Sigma
Antenna: active vertical dipole (2 x 5 m) MD300DX
Software: V3 by Simon Brown, G4ELI, QtiPlot, PropLab

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